Wari Hat

Lesson by Leisa Rich, Atlanta, GA

Wari Hat The Wari was a civilization that thrived around 500-900 A.D. in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern day Peru. Works of art were an important way the Wari communicated. The textiles of the Wari were intricately woven, utilized complex designs, and were among the finest made in the region. The items made included headbands called Diadem (Diadem also referring to jeweled, metal crowns), hats, beautiful woven tunics that signified wealth and importance, and everyday items. Everything was made from wools and cotton. All of the fibers had to be spun, dyed and woven by hand. They were able to glean stunning, intense colors from natural dyes, colors that have held up well over time. Animal motifs were often used. In addition, as the Wari had no writing system, these textiles were an important means of communication. They spoke of humans, the natural, and even the supernatural realms through the subject matter used in the textiles. Being informed about, and inspired by, the past is helpful when creating. In this lesson, we’ll use the inspiration of the Wari history: its creations, motifs and techniques, to work on a hat design that can reflect our personal, creative ideas in the contemporary world of today. Scroll down for the lesson or download the PDF here:  Wari Hat Lesson  
Lesson Plan Goals & Objectives
  • Students will create a 3 dimensional hat based on the design of the Wari culture
  • Students will design a pattern that reflects their interpretation of Wari design motifs
  • Students will use different surface design techniques to embellish the design they have created
  • Students will sew and construct their handmade cloth into a hat that fits them
41.228_SL1 Four Cornered Hat, Wari, Peru, 650-1000 C. E. Retrieved from: http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/51469/Four-Cornered_Hat
National Core Arts Standards
  • Use multiple approaches to begin creative endeavors.
  • Shape an artistic investigation of an aspect of present-day life using a contemporary practice of art and design.
  • Demonstrate willingness to experiment, innovate, and take risks to pursue ideas, forms, and meanings that emerge in the process of art-making or designing.
  • Explain how a person’s aesthetic choices are influenced by culture and environment and impact the visual image that one conveys to others.
  • Distinguish different ways art is used to represent, establish, reinforce, and reflect group identity.
Four Cornered Hat Met Museum Four Cornered Hat, Wari, Peru, 5th-9th C.E. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1994.35.158
Tools & Materials
  • One yard of stiff fabric such as heavy cotton or upholstery cotton, that can be hand painted, stenciled and hand sewn. Preferably white or cream colored.
  • 1 large upholstery sewing needle.
  • One spool of thread. Quilting thread is a good, strong choice. Black color will work well.
  • Embroidery floss in your choice of colors. A variety of 6-7 is great!
  • 6” embroidery hoop
  • Embroidery needle (you can also use the upholstery needle!)
  • 1 pc. poster board.
  • 1 X-ACTO knife and a couple of new blades. OR a box cutter.
  • 1 self-repairing cutting mat suitable for      X-ACTO cutting.
  • A selection of opaque fabric paints.
  • A selection of Dye Na Flow fabric dyes.
  • A few paintbrushes, sponge rollers
  • Sketch paper, pencil, sharpener and eraser.
  • Fabric markers, 1 thick Sharpie paint marker in black
  • fabrics you have at home that you may want to incorporate.
  • A little quilt batting for applique.
  • Tassles (sometimes they embellished the hat points with these!)
  • Blow dryer, iron & ironing board.
  • Hat pattern (at the end of this lesson)
  • Applique – a decoration made by cutting a piece of fabric into a shape and applying it to the surface of another fabric with an adhesive or hand or machine stitching.
  • Opaque – not able to see through; not transparent.
  • Resist – is the incompatibility of two materials that allow layering or blocking of one material into another.
  • Stencil – a thin layer of cardboard or plastic that can have a design cut away to allow paint or color to be applied to the surface in the shape of the design.
  • Translucent – in paint or dye, a thin layer that allows the underlying fabric to show through the color.
  • Weaving – a process of creating fabric by interlacing long threads passing in one direction with others at a right angle to them.
Detail Four Cornered Hat Detail Four Cornered Hat, Wari, Peru, 5th-9th c. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1994.35.158
Resources Wari glove Textile in the Form of a Glove, Wari, Peru, 650-800 C.E. Retrieved from: http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/75099/Textile_in_the_Form_of_a_Glove
ProceduresCreating the Painted Fabric Step 1 – Create hat pattern (at end of lesson) to fit diameter of head plus seam allowance for sewing together. Trace the hat pattern onto the canvas or cloth to see where the design should go. 1 Hat pattern Step 2 – Layout fabric on a waterproof surface and paint a basic design with dye inside the hat pattern outline. 4 Begin paint design Step 3 – Blow dry in between layers of dye and fabric pain throughout the process. 5 Hairdryer for speed Step 4 – Design stencils on poster board and cut out with X-ACTO mat knife or scissors. 4 Draw stencil shapes 5 Cut out stencil shapes </br> Step 5 – Using a brush or stencil brush and fabric paint, carefully stencil designs onto dry painted surface. Dry with the blow dryer and iron. href="https://www.explorefiber.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/6-Paint-stencils-on-design.jpg">   6 Paint stencils on design Step 6 – To create bands of color, use tape and roll fabric paint on. Dry with the blow dryer and pull the tape off. 7 Tape resist for additional lines 8 Tape resist diagonal lines It is important that the design is ironed to heat set! 10 Heat set painted design 9 Tape as resist 8 Remove resist 9 Developed design Finished design – spritzing design with diluted brown DyeNaFlow to achieve an aged look. 10 Mist ink onto design Step 7 Painted fabric cut into pattern Painted cloth cut out in shape of hat pattern. Cut out hat spikes Cut slits in each side of the triangle points BUT NOT ALL OF THE WAY THROUGH! Now you are ready to sew your hat together!
ProceduresSewing the Hat Together Step 1 – Put the two sides of each triangle together and sew up each side (do all four) and turn them right side out:Body of hatStep 2 – Sew up the back seam of the hat:Seam lineStep 3 – Push the triangles flat into the good side of the hat: Wrong Side   Step 4 – Sew (right sides together) the top of the hat to the body of the hat, with the triangles in between the layers: Wrong Side needle and thread Step 5 – Turn right side out. Turn right side out
ProceduresOther Paint Techniques Use the dye in a watercolor technique:1 Create watercolor designUse the roller brush to apply translucent layers of dye:2 Roller brush to build layersCreate lines like weaving warp threads by dragging the side of the roller or the wood end of a paintbrush through the dye.
ProceduresOther Paint Techniques Continue adding layers until desired effect:3 Roller brush as toolAdd designs in other colors:4 Add designCreate a wash over the entire surface:5 Wash over all design Outline shapes and designs in contrasting colors: 6 Contrast outline to define shapes Apply appliquéd fabric shapes to incorporate into design: 7 Applique additional fabric Tacky Glue can be used to attach fabric shapes for applique: 8 Tacky Glue for attaching shapes